Mars Surface


Mars Surface has mainly a cold, dry, desert landscape of sand and rocks and features like volcanoes, canyons, and valley. Planet Mars Surface has been explored by many spacecraft.

First Astronaut Walk on Mars Picture

First Astronaut Walk on Mars

SECRET PHOTO….1st Astronaut Mars Walk by USA. Pyramids are a Mars Military Base.

Northern Hemisphere

The northern hemisphere has fewer craters and these appear far less eroded indicating they are much younger than those of the southern hemisphere.

Southern Hemisphere

The southern hemisphere of Mars is quite heavily cratered and resembles the surface of our Moon. The surface is old and has been relatively unchanged for some time.


The atmosphere of Mars is thinner than the Earths. It consists mainly of carbon dioxide with some nitrogen and argon.

How long is a Mars Year? 

687 days.

Martian Volcanoes

Olympus Mons Picture

Olympus Mons (Mars) is the largest volcano in the Solar System.

Olympus Mons is 600 km across its base.

Polar Caps

Mars has polar caps that change with the Martian seasons.

Largest Canyon

Valles Marineris is the the largest canyon on Mars. It extends for aprox. 5000 km,  widest portion is 500 km wide and as much as 6km deep.

Plate Tectonics

There is no evidence on Mars for large scale plate tectonics as found on Earth.

Mars Surface Color (Colour)

The surface is red.


Average surface temperature is -63 °C (-81 F) and night-time temperatures on Mars can plunge to -110 °C (-170 F). In comparison to Earth, the lowest temperature ever recorded was -89 °C (-130 F) at Vostok, Antarctica, Earth in July, 1983.

The Seasons of Mars

Mars has seasons similar to those on Earth. However they vary due to the affect of planet’s axial tilt and variable distance from the Sun. The Martian seasons are twice as long because the Martian year is almost twice that of Earth (1 Martian year is as long as 1.88 Earth Years).

Age of Surface

It is thought to be 4.5 billion years old.


NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter provided evidence that liquid water flows intermittently on present-day Mars.


Winds can create dust storms that cover much of the planet. It can be months before all of the dust settles.


Percival Lowell canal-like grooves on Mars?


The Mars Science Laboratory is USA’s latest mars vehicle.

Did you know?

Face of Mars – was it a hoax?

* Mars rotates in the same direction as Earth.

Mars: The Inside Story of the Red Planet  
by Heather Couper and Nigel Henbest

The Smithsonian Book of Mars by Joseph M. Boyce

Mapping Mars: Science, Imagination, and the Birth of a World by Oliver Morton

Mars Surface Links

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