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The most authentic Space Toys on Earth!


 

Astronomer studies objects and phenomena which exist or have their origin in outer space. They can also be referred to as astrophysicists. Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences.


Who is your favorite Astronomer?


Jamshid al-kashi (1380 – 1429): was a Persian astronomer and mathematician.

Famous Astronomers

A

Aryabhata (India, 476)
Marc Aaronson (USA, 1950 — 1987)
Paul G. Abel (UK, 1979 — )
George O. Abell (USA, 1927 — 1983)
Hiroshi Abe (Japan, 1958 — )
Antonio Abetti (Italy, 1846 — 1928)
Giorgio Abetti (Italy, 1882 — 1982)
Charles Greeley Abbot (USA, 1872 — 1973)
Charles Hitchcock Adams (USA, 1868 — 1951)
John Couch Adams (UK, 1819 — 1892): predicted the existence and position of Neptune using only mathematics.
Walter Sydney Adams (USA, 1876 — 1956)
Saul Adelman (USA, 1944 — )
Petrus Alphonsi (Spain, 1062 — 1110)
Agrippa (Greece, unknown ca. 92)
Paul Oswald Ahnert (Germany, 1897 — 1989)
Eva Ahnert-Rohlfs (Germany, 1912 — 1954)
George Biddell Airy (UK, 1801 — 1892)
Robert Aitken, (USA, 1864 — 1951)
Makio Akiyama (Japan, 1950 — )
Al Battani (Iraq, 850 — 929)
Albategnius (see Al-Batani)
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Albitzky (Russia, 1891 — 1952)
Albumasar (Persia 787 — 886)
George Alcock (UK, 1913 — 2000)
Harold Alden (USA, 1890 — 1964)
Hannes Alfvιn (Sweden, 1908 — 1995)
Lawrence H. Aller (USA, 1913 — 2003)
Abd Al-Rahman Al Sufi (Persia, 903 — 986)
Viktor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian, (Armenia, 1912 — 1996)
John August Anderson (USA, 1876 — 1959)
Marie Henri Andoyer (France, 1862 — 1929)
Andronicus of Cyrrhus (Greece, unknown ca. 100 BC)
Anders Jonas Εngstrφm (Sweden, 1814 — 1874)
Eugθne Michel Antoniadi (Greece, France, 1870 — 1944)
Masakatsu Aoki (Japan, 1957 — )
Petrus Apianus (Germany, 1495 — 1557)
Franηois Arago (France, 1786 — 1853)
Masaru Arai (Japan, 1952 — )
Hiroshi Araki (Japan)
Sylvain Arend (Belgium, 1902 — 1992)
Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander (Germany, 1799 — 1875)
Aristarchus of Samos (Greece, circa 310 BC — circa 230 BC)
Christoph Arnold (Germany, 1650 — 1695)
Halton Christian Arp (USA, 1927 — )
Svante Arrhenius (Sweden, 1859 — 1927)
Arzachel (Spain, 1028 — 1087)
Asada Goryu (Japan, 1734 — 1799)
Atsuo Asami (Japan)
Giuseppe Asclepi (Italy, 1706 — 1776)
Joseph Ashbrook (USA, 1918 — 1980)
Arthur Auwers (Germany, 1838 — 1915)
Adrien Auzout (France, 1622 — 1691)
David Axon (England, 1951 — )

B
Brahmagupta (India,598–668 CE):
Bhaskara I (India,629 CE):
Bhaskara II (India,1114 CE):
Walter Baade (Germany, 1893 — 1960):
Harold D. Babcock (USA, 1882 — 1968):
Horace W. Babcock (USA, 1912 — 2003):
Oskar Backlund (Sweden, 1846 — 1916):
John N. Bahcall (USA, 1934 — 2005):
Yoshiaki Banno (Japan, 1952 — 1991):
Benjamin Baillaud (France, 1848 — 1934):
Jules Baillaud (France, 1876 — 1960):
Jean-Baptiste Baille (France, 1841 — 1918):
Jean Sylvain Bailly (France, 1736 — 1793):
Francis Baily (UK, 1774 — 1844):
John Bainbridge (UK, 1582 — 1643):
John E. Baldwin (UK, 1934 — ):
Sallie Baliunas (USA, 1953 — ):
Zoltαn Balog (Hungary/USA, 1972 — ):
Benjamin Banneker (USA, 1731 — 1806):
Edward Emerson Barnard (USA, 1857 — 1923):
Julius Bauschinger (France):
Johann Bayer (Germany, 1572 — 1625):
Antonνn Bečvαř (Slovakia, 1901 — 1965):
Wilhelm Beer (Germany, 1797 — 1850)
Sergei Ivanovich Belyavsky (Russia, 1883 — 1953):
Charles L. Bennett (USA, 1956 — ):
Roger A. Bell (USA, 1935 - 2012):
Jocelyn Bell Burnell (UK, 1943 — )
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (Germany, 1784 — 1846)
Somnath Bharadwaj (India)
Wilhelm Freiherr von Biela (Austria, 1782 — 1856)
Ludwig Biermann (Germany, 1907 — 1986)
Wolf Bickel (Germany)
Guillaume Bigourdan (France, 1851 — 1932)
James Binney (UK, 1950 — )
Biruni (Persia, 973 — 1048)
Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan (Russia, 1941 — )
Adriaan Blaauw (Netherlands, 1914 — 2010)
Nathaniel Bliss (UK, 1700 — 1764)
Johann Elert Bode (Germany, 1747 — 1826)
Alfred Bohrmann (Germany, 1904 — 2000)
Bart Bok (Netherlands, 1906 — 1983)
Charles Thomas Bolton (USA, 1943 — )
John Gatenby Bolton (UK/Australia, 1922 — 1993)
William Cranch Bond (USA, 1789 — 1859)
Alphonse Borrelly (France, 1842 — 1926)
Rudjer Boscovich (Dalmatia, 1711 — 1787)
Lewis Boss (USA, 1846 — 1912)
Alexis Bouvard (France, 1767 — 1843)
Rychard Bouwens (USA, 1972 — )
Edward L. G. Bowell (USA, 1943 — )
Ira Sprague Bowen (USA, 1898 — 1973)
Louis Boyer (France)
Ronald N. Bracewell (Australia, USA, 1921 — 2007)
James Bradley (UK, 1693 — 1762)
Tycho Brahe (Denmark, 1546 — 1601)

Tycho Brahe became famous with the observation of a new star (a supernova) in 1572.

John Alfred Brashear (USA, 1840 — 1920)
William Robert Brooks (USA, 1844 — 1922)
Theodor Brorsen (Denmark, 1819 — 1895)
Dirk Brouwer (Netherlands–USA, 1902 — 1966)
Ernest William Brown (UK, 1866 — 1938)
Michael (Mike) E. Brown (USA, 1965 — )
Hermann Alexander Brόck (Germany, 1905 — 2000)
Ismael Bullialdus (France, 1605 — 1694)
Margaret Burbidge (UK, 1919 — )
Robert Burnham, Jr. (USA, 1931 — 1993)
Sherburne Wesley Burnham (USA, 1838 — 1921)
Schelte J. Bus (USA, 1956 — )

C
William Wallace Campbell (USA, 1862 — 1938)
Annie Jump Cannon (USA, 1863 — 1941)
Luigi Carnera (Italy, 1875 — 1962)
Edwin Francis Carpenter (USA, 1898 — 1963)
James Carpenter (UK, 1840 — 1899)
Richard Christopher Carrington (UK, 1826 — 1875)
Sir John Carroll (UK, 1899 — 1974)
Cιsar-Franηois Cassini de Thury (France, 1714 — 1784)
Dominique, comte de Cassini (France, 1748 — 1845)
Giovanni Domenico Cassini (France, 1625 — 1712)
Jacques Cassini (France, 1677 — 1756)
Bonaventura Cavalieri (Italy, 1598 — 1647)
Anders Celsius (Sweden, 1701 — 1744)
Vincenzo Cerulli (Italy, 1859 — 1927)
Jean Chacornac (France, 1823 — 1873)
James Challis (UK, 1803 — 1882)
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (India, USA, 1910 — 1995)
Carl Charlier (Sweden, 1862 — 1934)
Auguste Charlois (France, 1864 — 1910)
Lyudmila Ivanovna Chernykh (Russia/Ukraine)
Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh (Russia/Ukraine, 1931 — )
James Christy (USA, 1938 — )
Edwin Foster Coddington (USA, 1870 — 1950)
Jιrτme Eugθne Coggia (France, 1849 — 1919)
Josep Comas Solα (Spain, 1868 — 1937)
Andrew Ainslie Common (UK, 1841 — 1903)
Guy Consolmagno (USA, 1952 — )
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 — 1543)
Corsono Carsono (Spain)
Pablo Cottenot (France)
Heather Couper (UK, 1949 — )
Leopold Courvoisier (Switzerland, 1873 — 1955)
Arthur Edwin Covington (Canada, 1914 — 2001)
Philip Herbert Cowell (UK, 1870 — 1949)
Thomas George Cowling (UK, 1906 — 1990)
Andrew Claude de la Cherois Crommelin (UK, 1865 — 1939)
James Cuffey (USA, 1911 — 1999)
Heber Doust Curtis (USA, 1872 — 1942)

D
Jacques Eugθne d'Allonville (France, 1671 — 1732)
Andre Louis Danjon (France, 1890 — 1967)
Heinrich d'Arrest (Germany, 1822 — 1875)
George Howard Darwin (UK, 1845 — 1912)
Roger Davies (UK, 1954 — )
William Rutter Dawes (UK, 1799 — 1868)
Bernhard Dawson (Argentina, 1890 — 1960)
Leo de Ball (Germany, Austria, 1853 — 1916)
Henri Debehogne (Belgium)
Annibale de Gasparis (Italy, 1819 — 1892)
Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre (France, 1749 — 1822)
Charles-Eugθne Delaunay (France, 1816 — 1872)
Eugθne Joseph Delporte (Belgium, 1882 — 1955)
Audrey C. Delsanti (France, 1976 — )
William Frederick Denning (UK, 1848 — 1931)
Alνz Derekas (Hungary, 1977 — )
Willem de Sitter (Netherlands, 1872 — 1934)
Henri-Alexandre Deslandres (France, 1853 — 1948)
Alexander Nikolaevich Deutsch (Russia)
Gιrard de Vaucouleurs (France/USA, 1918 — 1995)
Robert Dicke (USA, 1916 — 1997)
Terence Dickinson (Canada)
Thomas Digges (UK, 1546 — 1595)
Herbert Dingle (USA, 1890 — 1978)
Andrea Di Paola (Italy)
Ewine van Dishoeck (Netherlands, 1955 — )
David Dodge (Canada) (1949 — )
Giovanni Battista Donati (Italy, 1826 — 1873)
Frank Drake (USA, 1930 — )
Henry Draper (USA, 1837 — 1882)
John Dreyer (Ireland, 1852 — 1926)
Alexander D. Dubyago (Russia), 1903 — 1959)
Dmitrij I. Dubyago (Russia), 1850 — 1918)
Jean C. B. Dufay (France, 1896 — 1967)
Raymond Smith Dugan (USA, 1878 — 1940)
Petar Đurković (Serbia, 1908 — 1981)
Frank Watson Dyson (UK, 1868 — 1939)
Alexander Dalgarno (USA, 1928 — )

E
Arthur Eddington (UK, 1882 — 1944)
Frank K. Edmondson (USA, 1912 — 2008)
Olin J. Eggen (USA, 1919 — 1998)
Albert Einstein (Germany, 1879 — 1955)
Eise Eisinga (Netherlands, 1744 — 1828)
Eric Walter Elst (Belgium)
Johann Franz Encke (Germany, 1791 — 1865)
Kin Endate (Japan, 1960 — )
Eratosthenes (Alexandria, 276 BC — 194 BC)
Emil Ernst (Germany)
Ernest Esclangon (France, 1876 — 1954)
Fred Espenak (USA, 1953 — )
Larry W. Esposito (USA, 1951 — )
Eudoxus (Cnidus, circa 408 BC — circa 347 BC)

F
David Fabricius (Netherlands, 1564 — 1617)
Sandra M. Faber (USA, 1945 — )
Johannes Fabricius (Netherlands, 1587 — 1615)
Fearon Fallows (UK, 1789 — 1831)
Hervι Faye (France, 1814 — 1902)
Charles Fehrenbach (France, 1914 — 2008)
Farghani (Persia, d. after 861)
James Ferguson (USA, 1797 — 1867)
Alex Filippenko (USA, 1958 — )
Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (Germany, 1885 — 1964)
Axel Firsoff (UK, 1910 — 1981)
Debra Fischer USA
J. Richard Fisher
Camille Flammarion (France, 1842 — 1925)
Gabrielle Renaudot Flammarion (France, 1867 — 1962)
John Flamsteed (UK, 1646 — 1719)
Honorι Flaugergues (France, 1755 — 1835)
Williamina Fleming (USA, 1857 — 1911)
Wilhelm Julius Foerster (Germany, 1832 — 1921)
Alfred Fowler (UK, 1868 — 1940)
William Alfred Fowler (USA, 1911 — 1995)
Philip Fox (USA, 1878 — 1944)
Andrew Fraknoi (USA, 1948 — )
Joseph von Fraunhofer (Germany, 1787 — 1826)
Herbert Friedman (USA, 1916 — 2000 )
Dirk D. Frimout (Belgium, 1941 — )
Edwin Brant Frost (USA, 1866 — 1935)
Shigehisa Fujikawa (Japan)
Naoshi Fukushima (Japan, 1925 — 2003)

G
Bryan Gaensler (Australia, 1973 — )
Gan De (China, fl. 4th century BC)
Galileo Galilei (Italy, 1564 — 1642)
Julio Garavito Armero (Colombia, 1865 — 1920)
Margaret Geller (United States, 1947)
Gautama Siddha (China, fl. 8th century AD)
Johann Gottfried Galle (Germany, 1812 — 1910)
George Gamow (Russia, USA, 1904 — 1968)
Carl Friedrich Gauss (Germany, 1777 — 1855)
Tom Gehrels (Netherlands, USA, 1925 — )
Andrea M. Ghez (USA, 1965 — )
Riccardo Giacconi (Italy, 1931 — )
Michel Giacobini (France, 1873 — 1938)
Henry L. Giclas (USA, 1910 — 2007)
David Gill (UK, 1843 — 1914)
Thomas Gold (USA, 1920 — 2004)
Leo Goldberg (USA, 1913 — 1987)
Peter Goldreich (USA, 1939 — )
Hermann Goldschmidt (Germany, 1802 — 1866)
Franηois Gonnessiat (France, 1856 — 1934)
John Goodricke (UK, 1764 — 1786)
Alyssa A. Goodman (USA, 1962-)
Abu Sa'id Gorgani (Persia, 9th century)
Paul Gφtz (Germany)
Benjamin Apthorp Gould (USA, 1824 — 1896)
Andrew Graham (Ireland, 1815 — 1907)
Kathryn Aurora Gray (Canada, 2000 — )
Charles Green (England, 1735 — 1771)
Jesse Greenstein (USA, 1909 — 2002)
John Grunsfeld (USA, 1956 — )
Jay U. Gunter (United States, 1911 — 1994)
Alexander A. Gurshtein (Russia, 1937 — )
Bengt Gustafsson, (Sweden, 1943 — )
Guo Shoujing (China, 1231 — 1316)
Alan Harvey Guth (USA, 1947 — )

H
Yusuke Hagihara (Japan, 1897 — 1979)
George Ellery Hale (USA, 1868 — 1938)
Asaph Hall (USA, 1829 — 1907)
John Scoville Hall (USA, 1908 — 1991)
Edmond Halley (England, 1656 — 1742)

Edmund Halley

8 November 1956 – Birth of Edmund Halley

Edmund Halley was born on 8 November 1656 at Shoreditch, near London, UK. His father was a wealthy soap manufacturer, and the young Halley was privately educated at home before being sent to St Paul’s School at the age of 10, where his exceptional intelligence became apparent. At age 17 he went to Queen’s College, Oxford. He was by this time already an expert astronomer and well equipped with instruments paid for by his father. While at Oxford, Halley worked with the then astronomer royal, John Flamsteed. Halley’s own observations of a lunar occultation of Mars in August 1676 were published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

In 1965 Halley again became interested in comets. Unlike Newton, he suspected that they had elliptical orbits around the Sun.

Halley’s Comet will return in 2061.

Heidi Hammel (USA, 1960 — )
Peter Andreas Hansen (Denmark, 1795 — 1874)
Abulfazl Harawi (Persia, 10th century)
Karl Ludwig Harding (Germany, 1765 — 1834)
Thomas Hariot (UK, 1560 — 1621)
Guillermo Haro (Mexico, 1913 — 1988)
Robert G. Harrington (USA)
Robert Sutton Harrington (USA, 1942 — 1993)
Edward Robert Harrison (UK/USA, 1917 — 2007)
William Kenneth Hartmann (USA, 1939 — )
Lisa Harvey-Smith (Australia, 1979 - )
Takeo Hatanaka (Japan, 1914 — 1963)
Stephen Hawking (UK, 1942 — )
Will Hay (UK, 1888 — 1949)
Chushiro Hayashi (Japan, 1920 — 2010)
Otto Hermann Leopold Heckmann (Germany, 1901 — 1983)
Carl Heiles (USA, 1939 — )
Joseph Helffrich (Germany, 1872 — ?)
Eleanor Helin (USA, 1932 — 2009)
Maximilian Hell (Austria-Hungary, 1720 — 1792)
Karl Ludwig Hencke (Germany, 1793 — 1866)
Thomas Henderson (Scotland, 1798 — 1844)
Paul Henry (France, 1848 — 1905)
Prosper Henry (France, 1849 — 1903)
Abraham bar Hiyya (Spanish Jewish), (1070 — 1136)
George Howard Herbig (USA, 1920 — )
Caroline Herschel (UK, 1750 — 1848)
John Herschel (UK, 1792 — 1871)
William Herschel (UK/Germany, 1738 — 1822): William (Wilhelm) Herschel, discovered Uranus and infrared radiation.
Ejnar Hertzsprung (Denmark, 1873 — 1967)
Johannes Hevelius (Poland,1611 — 1687)
Antony Hewish (UK, 1924 — )
George William Hill (USA, 1838 — 1914)
John Russell Hind (UK, 1823 — 1895)
Hipparchus (Nicaea, circa 190 BC — 120 BC)
Masanori Hirasawa (Japan)
Kiyotsugu Hirayama (Japan, 1874 — 1943)
Shin Hirayama (Japan, 1868 — 1945)
Gustave-Adolphe Hirn (France, 1815 — 1890)
Sebastian von Hoerner (Germany), 1919 — 2003)
Cuno Hoffmeister (Germany, 1892 — 1968)
Dorrit Hoffleit (USA, 1907 — 2007 )
Helen Sawyer Hogg (Canada, 1905 — 1993)
Minoru Honda (Japan, 1917 — 1990)
Kamil Hornoch (Czech Republic, 1972 — )
Jeremiah Horrocks (UK, circa 1619 — 1641)
Cornelis Johannes van Houten (Netherlands, 1920 — 2002)
Ingrid van Houten-Groeneveld (Netherlands)
Martin van den Hove (Netherlands, 1605 — 1639)
Fred Hoyle (UK, 1915 — 2001)
Edwin Powell Hubble (USA, 1889 — 1953)
William Huggins (UK, 1824 — 1910)
Russell Alan Hulse (USA, 1950 — )
Hendrik Christoffel van de Hulst (Netherlands, 1918 — 2000)
Milton Lasell Humason (USA, 1891 — 1972)
Thomas John Hussey (England, 1792 — 1854)
Christiaan Huygens (Netherlands, 1629 — 1695)
Yuji Hyakutake (Japan, 1950 — 2002)
Josef Allen Hynek (USA, 1910 — 1986)

I
Icko Iben, Jr. (USA, 1931 — )
Kaoru Ikeya (Japan, 1943 — )
Robert Thorburn Ayton Innes (Scotland/South Africa, 1861 — 1933)
Shigeru Inoda (Japan)
Edward Israel (USA, 1859 — 1884)
Iwahashi Zenbei (Japan, 1756 — 1811)
Masayuki Iwamoto (Japan)
Shun-ei Izumikawa (Japan)
Isaiah James (Canada), 1994 — )

J
Cyril V. Jackson (South Africa, 1903 — 1988)
Pierre Jules Cιsar Janssen (France, 1824 — 1907)
James Jeans (UK, 1877 — 1946)
Benjamin Jekhowsky (Russia/France/Algeria, 1881 — 1953)
Louise Freeland Jenkins (USA, 1888 — 1970)
David C. Jewitt (UK, 1958 — )
Jiao Bingzhen (China, 1689 — 1726)
Alfred Harrison Joy (USA, 1882 — 1973)
Vinod Johri (India, 1935 — )

K
Tetsuo Kagawa (Japan)
Franz Kaiser (Germany, 1891 — 1962)
Piet van de Kamp (Netherlands/USA, 1901 — 1995)
Kiyotaka Kanai (Japan, 1951 — )
Hiroshi Kaneda (Japan, 1953 — )
Henry Kandrup (USA, 1955 — 2003)
Jacobus Kapteyn (Netherlands, 1851 — 1922)
Lyudmila Georgievna Karachkina (Ukraine)
Ghiyath al-Kashi (Persia, 1380 — 1429)
Karlis Kaufmanis (Latvia/United States, 1910 — 2003
Kōyō Kawanishi (Japan, 1959 — )
Nobuhiro Kawasato (Japan)
James Edward Keeler (USA, 1857 — 1900)
Paul Kempf (Germany, 1856 — 1920)
Johannes Kepler (Germany, 1571 — 1630)
Omar Khayyαm (Persia, 1048 — 1131)
Al-Khujandi (Persia, 10th century)
Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, (Persia, 780 — 850)
Kidinnu (Babylon, 4th century BC ; d. 330 BC?)
Hisashi Kimura (Japan, 1870 — 1943)
Daniel Kirkwood (USA, 1814 — 1895)
Robert Kirshner (USA)
Minoru Kizawa (Japan)
Ernst Friedrich Wilhelm Klinkerfues (Germany, 1827 — 1884)
Viktor Knorre (Russia, 1840 — 1919)
Takao Kobayashi (Japan, 1961 — )
Toru Kobayashi (Japan)
Luboš Kohoutek (1935 — )
Masahiro Koishikawa (Japan, 1952 — )
Nobuhisa Kojima (Japan, 1933 — )
Takuo Kojima (Japan)
Yoji Kondo (Japan, 1933 — )
Zdeněk Kopal (Czech Republic, UK, USA, 1914 — 1993)
August Kopff (Germany, 1882 — 1960)
Korado Korlević (Croatia)
Hiroki Kosai (Japan, 1933 — )
Charles T. Kowal (USA, 1940 — )
Robert Kraft (USA, 1927 — )
Ľubor Kresαk (Slovakia, 1927 — 1994)
Heinrich Kreutz (Germany, 1854 — 1927)
Kazuo Kubokawa (Japan, 1903 — 1943)
Marc Kuchner (USA, 1972 — )
Gerard Kuiper (Netherlands, USA, 1905 — 1973)
Donald Kurtz (1948 — )
Reiki Kushida (Japan)
Yoshio Kushida (Japan, 1957 — )
Gyφrgy Kulin (Austria-Hungary, 1905 — 1989)

L
Lagadha (India,1st millennium BCE)
Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (France, 1713 — 1762)
Claes-Ingvar Lagerkvist (Sweden)
Joseph-Louis Lagrange (France, 1736 — 1813)
Jιrτme Lalande (France, 1732 — 1807)
Johann Heinrich Lambert (France, Germany, 1728 — 1777)
David J. Lane (Canada, 1983 —)
Andrew E. Lange (USA, 1957 — 2010)
Samuel Pierpont Langley (USA, 1834 — 1906)
Pierre-Simon Laplace (France, 1749 — 1827)
William Lassell (UK, 1799 — 1880)
A. Laurent (France)
Henrietta Swan Leavitt (USA, 1868 — 1921)
Typhoon Lee (USA and Taiwan)
Guillaume Le Gentil (France, 1725 — 1792)
Georges Lemaξtre (Belgium, 1894 — 1966)
Pierre Lemonnier (France, 1715 — 1799)
Frederick C. Leonard (USA, 1896 — 1960)
Armin Leuschner (Germany, 1868 — 1953)
Urbain Le Verrier (France, 1811 — 1877)
David Levy (Canada)
Li Fan (China, fl. 1st century AD)
Bertil Lindblad (Sweden, 1895 — 1965)
Adolph Friedrich Lindemann (Germany/UK, 1846 — 1927)
Chris Lintott (UK, 1980 — )
Joseph Johann Littrow (Austria, 1781 — 1840)
Karl L. Littrow (Austria, 1811 — 1877)
Liu Xin (China, fl. 1st century AD)
Joseph Lockyer (UK, 1836 — 1920): discovered in the solar spectrum a previously unknown element that he named helium.
Maurice Loewy (Austria/France, 1833 — 1907)
Christian Sψrensen Longomontanus (Denmark, 1562 — 1647)
Percival Lowell (USA, 1855 — 1916)
ΐngel Lσpez (Spain)
Αlvaro Lσpez-Garcνa (Spain)
John William Lubbock (UK, 1803 — 1865)
Knut Lundmark (Sweden, 1889 — 1958)
Robert Luther (Germany, 1822 — 1900)
Lupitus of Barcelona (Spain)
Jane Luu (South Vietnam, USA 1965 — )
Willem Luyten (Dutch East Indies, Netherlands, 1899 — 1994)
Donald Lynden-Bell (UK, 1935 — )
Andrew Lyne - (UK, 1942)
Bernard Lyot (France, 1897 — 1952)

M
Mahendra Suri (India,14th century CE)
Ma Yize (China, 910 — 1005)
Adriaan van Maanen (USA, 1884 — 1946)
George Parker, 2nd Earl of Macclesfield (UK, c. 1697 — 1764)
Amy Mainzer (USA)
Steve Mandel (USA)
Geoff Marcy (USA, 1954 — )
Simon Marius (Germany, 1573 — 1624)
Brian Marsden (USA, 1937 — 2010)
Albert Marth (Germany, 1828 — 1897)
Nevil Maskelyne (UK, 1732 — 1811)
Charles Mason (UK, USA, 1730 — 1787)
John C. Mather (USA, 1946 — )
Janet Akyόz Mattei (Turkey/USA, 1943 — 2004)
Edward Walter Maunder (UK, 1851 — 1928)
Pierre Louis Maupertuis (France, 1698 — 1759)
Alain Maury (France)
Matthew Fontaine Maury (USA, 1806 — 1873)
Brian May (UK, 1947 — )
Cornell Mayer (USA, 1922 — 2005)
Tobias Mayer (Germany, 1723 — 1762)
Michel Mayor (Switzerland, 1942 — )
Christopher McKee (USA, 1942 — )
Robert S. McMillan (USA)
William H. McCrea (UK, 1904 — 1999)
Bruce A. McIntosh (Canada, 1929 — )
Robert H. McNaught (Australia)
Pierre Mιchain (France, 1744 — 1804)
Thebe Medupe (South Africa)
Karen Jean Meech (USA)
Aden Baker Meinel (USA, 1922 — )
Fulvio Melia (USA, 1956 — )
Philibert Jacques Melotte (UK, 1880 — 1961)
Paul Willard Merrill (USA, 1887 — 1961)
David Merritt (USA)
Charles Messier (France, 1730 — 1817)
Joel Hastings Metcalf (USA, 1866 — 1925)
Andreas Gerasimos Michalitsianos (USA, 1947 — 1997)
John Michell (UK, 1724 — 1793)
Elia Millosevich (Italy, 1848 — 1919)
Edward Arthur Milne (UK, 1896 — 1950)
Rudolph Minkowski (Germany, 1895 — 1976)
Marcel Gilles Jozef Minnaert (Belgium, Netherlands, 1893 — 1970)
Maria Mitchell (USA, 1818 — 1889)
Seidai Miyasaka (Japan, 1955 — )
Yoshikane Mizuno (Japan)
August Ferdinand Mφbius (Germany, 1790 — 1868)
Anthony Moffat (Canada)
Johan Maurits Mohr (Netherlands, 1716 — 1775)
Samuel Molyneux (UK, 1689 — 1728)
Geminiano Montanari (Italy, 1633 — 1687)
Patrick Moore (UK, 1923 — )
William Wilson Morgan (USA, 1906 — 1994)
Hiroshi Mori (Japan, 1958 — )
Amιdιe Mouchez (France, 1821 — 1892)
Antonνn Mrkos (Czech Republic, 1918 — 1996)
Jean Mueller (USA, 1950 — )
Masaru Mukai (Japan, 1949 — )
Johannes Mόller (Germany, 1436 — 1476)
Harutaro Murakami (Japan, 1872 — 1947)
Osamu Muramatsu (Japan, 1949 — )
bin Musa, Ahmad (Persia, 805 — 873)
bin Musa, Hasan (Persia, 810 — 873)
bin Musa, Muhammad (Persia, (800 — 873)
Nils Mustelin (Finland, 1931 — 2004)

N
Nilakantha Somayaji (India,1444–1544 CE)
Valentin Naboth (Germany, Italy, 1523 — 1593)
Naburimannu (Babylonia, sometime between 6th century BC and 2nd century BC)
Takeshi Nagata (Japan, 1913 — 1991)
Ahmad Nahavandi (Persia, 7th-8th century)
Akimasa Nakamura (Japan, 1961 — )
Syuichi Nakano (Japan, 1947 — )
Jayant Narlikar (India, 1938 — )
Naubakht (Persia, d. 776)
David Naylor (Canada)
Al-fadl ibn Naubakht (Persia, 8th century)
Otto Neugebauer (Germany, USA, 1899 — 1990)
Grigoriy Nikolaevich Neujmin (Russia, 1886 — 1946)
Simon Newcomb (USA, 1835 — 1909)
Isaac Newton (UK, 1643 — 1727)
Seth Barnes Nicholson (USA, 1891 — 1963)
Albertus Antonie Nijland (Netherlands, 1868 — 1936)
Tsuneo Niijima (Japan)
Peter Nilson (Sweden, 1937 — 1998)
Hōei Nojiri (Japan, 1885 — 1977)
Jaime Nomen (Spain)
Toshiro Nomura (Japan, 1954 — )

O
Knut Jψrgen Rψed Ψdegaard (Norway, 1966 — )
Okuro Oikawa (Japan, 1896 — 1970)
Tarmo Oja (Sweden)
Tomimaru Okuni (Japan, 1931 — )
Nicolaus Olahus (Hungarian, 1493 — 1568)
Heinrich Wilhelm Matthδus Olbers (Germany, 1758 — 1840)
Gerard O'Neill (USA, 1927 — 1992)
Jan Hendrik Oort (Netherlands, 1900 — 1992)
Pieter Oosterhoff (Netherlands, 1904 — 1978)
Ernst Φpik (Estonia, Ireland, 1893 — 1985)
Josι Luis Ortiz Moreno (Spain)
Yoshiaki Oshima (Japan)
Donald Edward Osterbrock, USA, 1924 — 2007)
Liisi Oterma (Finland, 1915 — 2001)
Satoru Otomo (Japan, 1913 — )
Jean Abraham Chrιtien Oudemans (Netherlands, 1827 — 1906)

P
Rafael Pacheco (Spain)
Bohdan Paczyński (Poland, 1940 — 2007)
Ľudmila Pajdušαkovα (Slovakia, 1916 — 1979)
Johann Palisa (Austria, 1848 — 1925)
Johann Palitzsch (Germany, 1723 — 1788)
Anton Pannekoek (Netherlands, 1873 — 1960)
Eugene Parker (USA, 1927 — )
George Parker, 2nd Earl of Macclesfield (UK, c. 1697 — 1764)
William Parsons, Lord Rosse (Ireland, 1800 — 1867)
Andrι Patry (France, 1902 — 1960)
Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin (UK, USA, 1900 — 1979)
James Peebles (Canada, USA, 1935 — )
Leslie Copus Peltier (USA, 1900 — 1980)
Roger Penrose (UK, 1931 — )
Arno Penzias (Germany, 1933 — )
Saul Perlmutter (USA)
Charles Dillon Perrine (USA, Argentina, 1867 — 1951)
Henri Joseph Anastase Perrotin (France, 1845 — 1904)
Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters (Germany, USA, 1813 — 1890)
George Henry Peters (USA, 1863 — 1947)
Mark M. Phillips (USA, 1951 — )
Giuseppe Piazzi (Italy, 1746 — 1826)
Edward Charles Pickering (USA, 1846 — 1919): discovered the first spectroscopic binary star, Mizar.
William Henry Pickering (USA, 1858 — 1938)
Maynard Pittendreigh (USA, 1954 — )
Phil Plait (USA)
Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana (Italy, 1781 — 1864)
Petrus Plancius (Netherlands, 1552 — 1622)
John Stanley Plaskett (Canada, 1865 — 1941)
Norman Robert Pogson (UK, 1829 — 1891)
Christian Pollas (France)
John Pond (England, 1767 — 1836)
Jean-Louis Pons (France, 1761 — 1831)
Vladimνr Porubčan (Slovakia, 1940 — )
Charles Pritchard (UK, 1808 — 1893)
Richard Proctor (England, 1837 — 1888)
Ptolemy of Alexandria (Roman Egypt, circa 85 — 165)
Pierre Puiseux (France, 1855 — 1928)
Georg Purbach (Germany, 1423 — 1461)
Pythagoras of Samos (580 BC — 500 BC)
Paris Pişmiş (1911 — 1999)

Q
Adolphe Quetelet (Belgium, 1796 — 1874)
Ali Qushji (Ottoman, 1403 — 1474)
M. Shahid Qureshi (Pakistan)

R
Radhagobinda Chandra
David Lincoln Rabinowitz (USA, 1960 — )
Grote Reber (USA, 1911 — 2002)
Martin Rees (UK, 1942 — )
Hubert Reeves (CA, 1932 — )
Regiomontanus (Johannes Mόller) (Germany, 1436 — 1476)
Julius Reichelt (Germany, 1637 — 1717)
Erasmus Reinhold (Prussia, Germany, 1511 — 1553)
Karl Reinmuth (Germany, 1892 — 1979)
Pieter Johannes van Rhijn (Netherlands, 1886 — 1960)
Giovanni Battista Riccioli (Italy, 1598 — 1671)
Jean Richer (France, 1630 — 1696)
Adam Riess (USA)
Fernand Rigaux (Belgium)
George Willis Ritchey (USA, 1864 — 1945)
David Rittenhouse (USA, 1732 — 1796)
Arjen Roelofs (Netherlands, 1754 — 1824)
Elizabeth Roemer (USA, 1929 — )
Roger of Hereford (England) c. 1176 — 1198
Ole Christensen Rψmer (Denmark, 1644 — 1710)
Otto A. Rosenberger (Germany, 1800 — 1890)
Lord Rosse (Ireland, 1800 — 1867)
Svein Rosseland (Norway, 1894 — 1985)
Bruno Rossi (Italy, 1905 — 1993)
Vera Rubin (USA, 1928 — )
Henry Norris Russell (USA, 1877 — 1957)
Martin Ryle (UK, 1918 — 1984)

S
Sir Edward Sabine (Ireland, 1788 — 1883):
Carl Edward Sagan (USA, 1934 — 1996):
Megh Nad Saha (India, 1893 – 1956):
Edwin Ernest Salpeter (Austria, Australia, USA, 1924 — 2008):
Allan Rex Sandage (USA, 1926 — 2010):
Hendricus Gerardus van de Sande Bakhuyzen (Netherlands, 1838 — 1923):
Wallace Leslie William Sargent (UK, USA, 1935 — ):
Anneila Sargent (UK, USA, 1942 — ):
Naoto Sato (Japan, 1953 — ):
Alexandre Schaumasse (France, 1882 — 1958):
Giovanni Schiaparelli (Italy, 1835— 1910):
Frank Schlesinger (USA, 1871 — 1943)
Bernhard Schmidt (Estonia, Sweden, Germany, 1879 — 1935):
Maarten Schmidt (Netherlands, 1929 — ):
Robert Schommer (USA, 1946 — 2001):
Johann Hieronymus Schrφter (Germany, 1745 — 1816):
Lipσt Schulhof (Hungary, 1847—1921):
Heinrich Christian Schumacher (Germany, 1780 — 1850):
Hans-Emil Schuster (Germany, 1934 — )
Samuel Heinrich Schwabe (Germany, 1789 — 1875):
Karl Schwarzschild (Germany, 1873 — 1916):
Martin Schwarzschild (Germany, USA, 1912 — 1997):
Friedrich Karl Arnold Schwassmann (Germany, 1870 — 1964):
Ruby Payne Scott (Australia, 1912 — 1981):
James Vernon Scotti (USA, 1960 — ):
Frederick Hanley Seares (USA, 1873 — 1964):
George Mary Searle (USA, 1839 — 1918):
Angelo Secchi (Italy, 1818 — 1878):
Waltraut Seitter (Germany, 1930 — 2007):
Tsutomu Seki (Japan, 1930 — ):
Carl Keenan Seyfert (USA, 1911 — 1960):
Grigory Abramovich Shajn (Russia, 1892 — 1956):
Pelageya Fedorovna Shajn (Russia, 1894 — 1956):
Harlow Shapley (USA, 1885 — 1972):
Richard Sheepshanks (UK, 1794 — 1855):
Shen Kuo (China, 1031 — 1035):
Shi Shen (China, fl. 4th century BC):
Shibukawa Shunkai (Japan, 1639 — 1715):
Shinzo Shinjo (Japan, 1873 — 1938):
Qutb eddin Shirazi (Persia, 1236 — 1311):
Iosif Samuilovich Shklovsky (Russia, 1916 — 1985):
Carolyn Jean Spellmann Shoemaker (USA, 1929 — ):
Eugene Merle Shoemaker (USA, 1928 — 1997):
Willem de Sitter (Netherlands, 1872 — 1934):
Charlotte Moore Sitterly (USA, 1898 — 1990):
John Francis Skjellerup (Australia, South Africa, 1875 — 1952)
Vesto Melvin Slipher (USA, 1875 — 1969): first to measure the radial velocity of the Andromeda galaxy.
Tamara Mikhaylovna Smirnova (Russia, 1918 — )
George Smoot (USA, 1945 — )
William Henry Smyth (UK, 1788 — 1865)
Willebrord Snel van Royen (Snellius) (Netherlands, 1580 — 1626)
Mary Fairfax Somerville (UK, 1780 — 1872)
Sir James South (UK, 1785 — 1867)
Sir Harold Spencer Jones (UK, 1890 — 1960)
Lyman Spitzer (USA, 1914 — 1997)
Friederich Wilhelm Gustav Spφrer (Germany, 1822 — 1895)
Rainer Spurzem (Germany, 1956 — )
Anton Staus (Germany, 1872 — 1955)
Joel Stebbins (USA, 1878 — 1966)
Johan Stein (Netherlands, 1871 — 1951)
Karl August von Steinheil, (Germany, 1801 — 1870)
Ιdouard Stephan (France, 1837 — 1923)
David J. Stevenson (New Zealand, 1948 — )
Edward James Stone (1831 — 1897)
F. J. M. Stratton (UK, 1881 — 1960)
Bengt Georg Daniel Strφmgren (Denmark, 1908 — 1987)
Friedrich Georg Wilhelm (von) Struve (Germany, Russia, 1793 — 1864)
Karl Hermann Struve (Russia, Germany, 1854 — 1920)
Gustav Wilhelm Ludwig Struve (Russia, 1858 — 1920)
Otto Struve (Russia, USA, 1897 — 1963)
Otto Wilhelm (von) Struve (Russia, 1819 — 1905)
Su Song (China, 1020—1101)
Abd Al-Rahman Al Sufi (Persia, 903 — 986)
Matsuo Sugano (Japan)
Atsushi Sugie (Japan)
Nicholas Suntzeff (USA, 1952 — )
Rashid Alievich Sunyaev (Uzbekistan Russia Germany, 1943 — )
Shohei Suzuki (Japan)
Lewis A. Swift (USA, 1820 — 1913)
Frιdιric Sy (France)
Gyula M. Szabσ (Hungary, 1979 — )
Samad Rizvi (Pakistan, 1924 — 2009)

T
Akihiko Tago (Japan, 1932 — )
Atsushi Takahashi (Japan)
Kesao Takamizawa (Japan, 1952 — )
Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. (USA, 1941 — )
Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Tempel (Germany, 1821 — 1889)
Thabit ibn Qurra (Iraq, 826 — 901)
Thorvald Nicolai Thiele (Denmark, 1838 — 1910)
Louis Thollon (France, 1829 — 1887)
Norman G. Thomas (USA)
John Thome (USA, Argentina, 1843 — 1908)
Kip Stephen Thorne (USA, 1940 — )
Friedrich Tietjen (Germany, 1834 — 1895)

Beatrice Muriel Hill Tinsley (New Zealand, USA, 1941 — 1981): made fundamental contributions to the astronomical understanding of how galaxies evolve with time.

Johann Daniel Titius (Germany, 1729 — 1796): He is best known for formulating the Titius–Bode law, and for using this rule to predict the existence of a celestial object at 2.8 AU from the sun.

Clyde W. Tombaugh (USA, 1906 — 1997): discovered the planet Pluto.

Chad Trujillo (USA, 1973 — ): He has discovered several trans-Neptunian objects including Eris.

Neil deGrasse Tyson (USA, 1958 — ): He is currently the Frederick P. Rose Director of the Hayden Planetarium at the Rose Center for Earth and Space.

U
Seiji Ueda (Japan, 1952 — ): discoverer of asteroids.
Ulugh Beg (Persia, 1394 — 1449):
Antonio de Ulloa (Spain), (1716 — 1795):
Albrecht Unsφld (Germany, 1905 — 1995):
Takeshi Urata (Japan):
Mu’ayyad al-Din al-’Urdi (Persia d. 1266):

V
Yrjφ Vδisδlδ (Finland, 1891 — 1971)
Benjamin Valz (France, 1787 — 1867)
James Van Allen (USA, 1914 — 2006)
George Van Biesbroeck (Belgium, USA, 1880 — 1974)
Hendrik Christoffel van de Hulst (Netherlands, 1918 — 2000)
Peter van de Kamp (USA, 1901 — 1995)
Sidney van den Bergh (Canada, 1929 — )
Martin van den Hove (Netherlands, 1605 — 1639)
Hendricus Gerardus van de Sande Bakhuyzen (Netherlands, 1838 — 1923)
Hendrik van Gent (Netherlands, South Africa, 1900 — 1947)
Cornelis Johannes van Houten (Netherlands, 1920 — 2002)
Ingrid van Houten-Groeneveld (Netherlands)
Pieter Johannes van Rhijn (Netherlands, 1886 — 1960)
Gιrard de Vaucouleurs (France, USA, 1918 — 1995)
Zdeňka Vαvrovα (Czech Republic or Slovakia)
Philippe Vιron (France, 1939 — )
Frank Washington Very (USA, 1852 — 1927)
Yvon Villarceau (France, 1813 — 1883)
Julie Vinter Hansen (Denmark), 1890 — 1960)
Hermann Carl Vogel (Germany, 1841 — 1907)
Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve (Germany, Russia, 1793 — 1864)
Otto Wilhelm von Struve (Russia, 1819 — 1905)
Alexander N. Vyssotsky (Russia/USA, 1888 — 1973)
Emma Vyssotsky (USA, 1894 — 1975)

W
Arno Arthur Wachmann (Germany, 1902 — 1990)
Abul Wαfa (Persia, 940 — 997-8)
Walcher of Malvern (England d. 1135)
George Wallerstein (1930 — )
William Wales (UK, ca. 1734 — 1798)
Qingde Wang (USA/China)
Kazuro Watanabe (Japan, 1955 — )
James Craig Watson (USA, 1838 — 1880)
Kim Weaver (USA, 1969 — )
Thomas William Webb (UK, 1807 — 1885)
Alfred Lothar Wegener (Germany, 1880 — 1930)
Gary A. Wegner (USA, 1944 — )
Wei Pu (China, fl. 11th century)
Karl von Weizsδcker (Germany, 1912 — 2007)
Godefroy Wendelin (Belgium, 1580 — 1667)
Richard M. West (Denmark, 1941 — )
J. G. Westphal (Germany)
Johann Heinrich Westphal (Germany, Italy, 1794 — 1831)
George Wetherill (1925 — 2006):
John Archibald Wheeler (USA, 1911 — ):
Fred Lawrence Whipple (USA, 1906 — 2004): proposed the 'dirty snowball'' model of cometary structure.
Albert Whitford (USA, 1905 — 2002):
Chandra Wickramasinghe (UK, 1939 — ):
Olin C. Wilson (USA, 1909 — 1994):
Robert Wilson (USA, 1936 — ): with Arno Allan Penzias discovered in 1964 the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB).
Gustav Witt (Germany, 1866 — 1946): He discovered two asteroids: 433 Eros, the first known asteroid with an unusual orbit and asteroid Berolina which bears the Latin name of his adoptive city.
Maximilian Wolf (Germany, 1863 — 1932):
Aleksander Wolszczan (Poland, 1946 — ):
Richard van der Riet Woolley (UK, 1906 — 1986):
Thomas Wright (UK, 1711 — 1786):

Y
Issei Yamamoto (Japan, 1889 — 1959):
Masayuki Yanai (Japan, 1959 — ):
Yi Xing (China, 683 — 727):
Charles Augustus Young (USA, 1834 — 1908):
James Whitney Young (USA, 1941 — ):

Z
Franz Xaver von Zach (Germany, 1753 — 1832):
Abraham Zacuto (Spain/Portugal, 1450 — 1510):
Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich (USSR, 1914 — 1987):
Zhang Daqing (China, 1969 — ):
Zhang Heng (China, 78 — 139):
Zhang Yuzhe (China, 1902 — 1986):
Felix Ziegel (Soviet Union, 1920 — 1988):
Zu Chongzhi (China, 429 — 500):
Fritz Zwicky (Switzerland, USA, 1898 — 1974):


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Updated: Tuesday 1st, April, 2014