Apollo missions were
developed in response to President Kennedy's challenge to land an
astronaut on the Moon by the end of the 1960's. The missions
consisted of twelve piloted launches and three unpiloted launches
between 1967 and 1972.
Six missions landed on the moon. All manned moon landings were
launched by Saturn V Rocket and consisted of 3 crew. Apollo 4, 5 and
6 were unpiloted test flights flown in 1967 and 1968.
APOLLO 1 Mission: (January
Crew: Virgil 'Gus' Grissom, Edward White, Roger
- Crew died when the capsule caught fire during a countdown
- The scheduled lift-off was on 21 February 1967.
APOLLO 7 MISSION: (October
Crew: Walter M. Schirra, Donn F. Eisele and Walter
Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB
- Apollo 7 was the first manned Apollo launch.
- First live TV broadcast from a manned spacecraft.
APOLLO 8 MISSION: (December
Crew: Frank Borman, James A. Lovell Jr. and William A.
Launch Vehicle: Saturn V
Apollo 8 astronauts were the first astronauts launched
by Saturn V rocket.
- First humans to orbit the Moon.
APOLLO 9 MISSION: (March
Crew: James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott and Russell L.
Command Module: Gumdrop.
Lunar Module: Spider.
- First Flight test of Lunar Module (LM) in Earth Orbit.
- First space walk testing new lunar space suit.
APOLLO 10 MISSION: (May
Crew: Stafford, Young and Cernan
Command Module: Charlie Brown
Lunar Module: Snoopy
- Tested the Lunar Module in Lunar Orbit.
APOLLO 11 MISSION:
Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Michael Collins
Command Module: Columbia
Lunar Module: Eagle
20 July 1969
Sea of Tranquillity -
Time on Moon:
Apollo 11 was the first moon landing mission.
- Neil Armstrong was the first astronaut to
walk on the moon.
- The USS Hornet aircraft carrier recovered the Apollo 11 crew after
their return from the first lunar landing.
APOLLO 12 MISSION:
(November 14-24, 1969)
Charles Conrad, Richard F. Gordon Jr, Alan L. Bean
Command Module: Yankee Clipper
Lunar Module: Intrepid
19 November 1969
Ocean of Storms (Oceanus Procellarum)
Apollo 12 was the second moon landing mission.
- They performed first major experiments.
- Retrieved pieces of Surveyor spacecraft.
- Richard Nixon was the first US President to attend the launch of a
manned spacecraft. He viewed Apollo 12 on November 14, 1969.
APOLLO 13 MISSION:
(Near Disaster: April 11-17, 1970)
Crew: James A. Lovell
John L. Swigert Jr. and Fred W. Haise Jr.
Command Module: Odyssey
Lunar Module: Aquarius
Apollo 13: Deep Space abort due to explosion
in Service Module. Lunar Module used as lifeboat. The Crew returned
APOLLO 14 MISSION:
Crew: Alan B.
Shepard Jr., Stuart A. Roosa, Edgar D. Mitchell
Command Module: Kitty Hawk
Lunar Module: Antares
Fra Mauro Formation
- Alan Shepard, America's first man in space led this mission
and he was the oldest man to walk on the Moon.
- Alan Shepard hit two golf balls on the moon. This was the
first sporting event on the Moon.
APOLLO 15 MISSION:
(July 26-7 August, 1971)
Crew: David R.
Scott, Alfred M. Worden, James B. Irwin
Command Module: Endeavour
Lunar Module: Falcon
Hadley Apennines (Rille)
- First mission to use the Rover (Lunar Roving
Apollo 15 crew launched the first subsatellite into lunar orbit to
study the Moon.
- Apollo 15 mission landed the farthest from the lunar equator.
- One of the three landing parachutes failed during their descent to
Earth. The splashdown was a bit rougher than normal, but no one was
APOLLO 16 MISSION:
(April 16-27, 1972)
Crew: John W. Young
Thomas K. Mattingly II, Charles M. Duke Jr.
Command Module: Casper
Lunar Module: Orion
- Descartes Highlands is the highest
Apollo landing site.
- John Young during Apollo 16 set the Moon land speed record with
the Lunar Roving Vehicle. He reached a speed of 11 miles per hour
APOLLO 17 MISSION:
(December 7-19, 1972)
Crew: Eugene A.
Cernan, Ronald E. Evans, Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt
Command Module: America
Lunar Module: Challenger
Taurus- Littrow Valley
- Last Apollo mission.
- Ron Evans of
Apollo 17 performed the last space walk of the Apollo
program and last deep space walk in history.
- Dr. Harrison H. Schmitt was the last person to set foot on the
Moon during the 20th Century (twelfth person out of a total of
twelve moonwalkers). Cernan was the last man to ever stand on the
Apollo 18, 19 and
- Apollo 18, 19 and 20 were
cancelled due to budgetary considerations.
Books and Merchandise:
Exploration: Human Pioneers and Robotic Surveyors
by Paolo Ulivi, David M Harland
DVD - selection of dvds
Apollo Mission Links:
Apollo Program (1963 - 1972):
NASA's portal to data on the Apollo
lunar missions. Mission summaries and data, and links to related
the Moon: Apollo Missions:
Overviews of the various Apollo missions, including landing
sites, lunar surface operations, science experiments and samplings.
The National Air and Space Museum's
online Apollo Program exhibit provides mission histories, mission
patches, and imagery.
Today - Exploration - Apollo Missions:
An interesting look at the apollo series of
Project Apollo Image Gallery:
Launch Pad - Mercury, Gemini and Apollo Missions:
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